These are the criteria I used to classify the examples on this website:
These are the categories:
Zines are self produced, self-published, independent magazines that the creators distribute by themselves (Duncombe, 1997). Modern zines are considered to be born in the 1930, in the American community of amateur sci-fi writers sharing their stories by mail. Zines gained popularity in radical groups of the 60s and 70s, thanks to a desire for alternative media of communication, as well as a greater accessibility to printing processes. In the late 1970s and 1980s zines were mostly associated with Punk culture, and later on with feminist groups of the 1990s. Self-publishing was for these group a creative way to reject the culture imposed by the mainstream media and make and spread their own. In the age of the Internet, zines survive as a form of subversive artistic expression.
The term Little Magazines originally designated “a group of predominantly literary magazines of the early twentieth century that tool as their mission the publication of art, literature, and social theory by progressive writers”(Colomina, 2010, p.8). While these magazines were predominantly self-produced and non-commercial, they sought to influence dominant culture. In the late 1960s and 1970s the term was used to define independent architectural publications that responded to social, political, artistic changes of the period (ibid). These publications do not only include magazines, but also pamphlet, posters, fliers, postcards etc.
Stephen Duncombe, 1997, “Notes from the Underground: Zines and the Politics of Alternative Culture”
Beatriz Colomina, 2010, “Clip, Stamp, Fold: The Radical Architecture of Little Magazines, 196X to 197X”
Unlike other tools, games do not normally lead to the representation of different possibilities at once. For this reason, I was a bit hesitant to include examples of games in my collection. However, games provide a structured set of rules and materials that can be used in different occasion to produce an infinite number of potential results that are directly comparable, since the tools and possibilities of play do not change from one event of play to the other.
One of the reasons why it is often difficult to conduct constructive conversations about the future is that we have no unquestionable context for our speculations. Anything and everything could potentially happen, whether it is something that is expected, predictable, or unthinkable. Games allow players to deal with this issue by creating a fictional world that players in a “magic circle” temporarily accept as real. In games, an initial scenario and a set of challenges are proposed to participants. Players compete or collaborate following to the rules of a fictional world. Because participants do know that the world they are living and operating in during the game is temporary, solutions and strategies that are put in place while playing tend to be incredibly creative, free from prejudice and part of a strategy that looks at the bigger picture.
The types of games that I am including in this collection are critical games in which players speculate on alternative urban futures. To play critically means “to create or occupy play environments and activities that represent one or more questions about aspects of human life” (Flanagan, 2009)
Mary Flanagan, 2009, “Critical Play”
This final category includes all the examples that are designed for the Web.